Undoubtedly the velocity of the .450 Marlin or a stout .45-70 load would be higher with bullets of similar Section Density. (And kinetic energy of the longer .450 Marlin/.45-70 would be higher.) Especially in the case of the .480 Ruger which operates at a lower pressure than the .475 Linebaugh. In a handgun the .480 Ruger is going to be much more comfortable and controlable than any of the other three could possibly be. In the case of the .475 Linebaugh it's a little closer comparison. Either the .475 or the .480 make a better "true revolver" round because of their OAL. I know BFR makes revolvers in the longer cased rounds but I find them less appealing than the shorter cartridge revolvers, but that is just a personal preference.
In terms of practical applications there isn't as much difference as most would suspect. The range of uses for the .450 Marlin/.45-70/ and .475 Linebaugh in the real world largely overlap. There are differences to be sure, but they appear larger on paper than in reality!
Remember, the .450 Marlin and .45/70 are true rifle rounds, the .475 Linebaugh and .480 Ruger are true handgun rounds. In the end it's going to boil down to individual preference! Good luck.
P.S. A good site to make some comparisons:
Just click on rifle and/or handgun and check appropriate calibers.